Gottlieb & Karoline Truher immigrants arrive in New York, July 8, 1870
• 1-Gottlieb & Karoline Truher immigrants arrive in New York, July 8, 1870

Bogenschneider family web site tells story of Gottlieb's family journey on the Western Metropolis

http://gene.truher.net/truher/WesternMetropolis-JBT/

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Subject:
Gottlieb & Karoline Truher arrive New York July 8, 1870
Date:
Sat, 04 Sep 2010 08:36:10 -0700
From:
Jack Truher

We have long known that the Truher family arrived in New York from Germany on July 8, 1870, and place.

We have known about the good ship, Western Metropolis, on which they traveled and some detail of the events, but the graphics was poor. I've got some better imagery,
here than I recall seeing in our earlier research.

image

one of the Western Metropolis itself, and an artistic view of the San Salvadore( above)

I found a picture of a sister ship the San Salvadore, at least in appearance (above) and Technology.

Tonight, I'll send you
a web page, with the imagery and a couple of the other documents, with highlighted text that fixes the dates of things.

One of those other documents is also available on the web, as by the
Bogenschneider Family , which happened to include their arrival on the same ship and date, with more detail. (Look for the highlighted text) We've had this for a long time, but the images make a difference to me tonight. .

http://gene.truher.net/truher/WesternMetropolis-JBT/ is same link as above

The image below is the W.M. as a Paddle Wheel, before it's
Sails were added for the Atlantic
passenger trade, at which time it looked more like the San Salvadore at top of this message:


image
image


• 2-Gottlieb & Karoline Truher immigrants arrive in New York, July 8, 1870 - printing the links and text this time.
Here is the composition of a collection of Gottlieb's Truher's life, in some part, though, more is known.

http://gene.truher.net/truher/WesternMetropolis-JBT/

is a web page which has pictures, most collected as follows:

http://gene.truher.net/truher/WesternMetropolis-JBT/WesternMetropolisSail-Steam.jpg

http://gene.truher.net/truher/WesternMetropolis-JBT/WesternMetropolis%20Sail-Steam2.jpg

http://gene.truher.net/truher/WesternMetropolis-JBT/San%20Salvador-WesternMetropolis-PA0693.jpg

http://gene.truher.net/truher/WesternMetropolis-JBT/San%20Salvador-WesternMetropolis-PA0693a.jpg

http://images.maritimehistoryofthegreatlakes.ca/811/data?n=22

http://gene.truher.net/truher/WesternMetropolis-JBT/Western%20Metropolis-EXT00419.jpg

http://gene.truher.net/truher/WesternMetropolis-JBT/Western%20Metropolis-EXT00419f-w800.jpg

http://gene.truher.net/truher/WesternMetropolis-JBT/Havre-Bremen-Copenhagen-Swinemunde-Kiel-Christiansand-c.jpg

Record by Ron Haack w consult Jack, dated Feb 2001:
The early records of St. Lucas Lutheran Church in Bay View, Wisconsin (era about 1875) show Gottlieb Truher's last name spelled "Truhr, no "e"". Caroline Truher's maiden name is spelled "Pein', several places.
Time line For Gottlieb & Caroline Truher:
November 21, 1832: Born, Danzig, Prussia (now Gdansk, Poland.
1859: Married, Danzig, Prussia.
July 08, 1870: Immigrated to USA via NYC, with August as infant (? - actually born in 1866 in Prussia). Caroline was pregnant with Charles Edward.
(From Filbey's "Germans to America", Volume 224, 1870:
From Germany to USA, Gottlieb Trur, age 38, Male, Farmer, Caroline Trur, age 32, Female, August Trur, age .11(eleven months, actually born in Prussia in 1866). Ship: Western Metropolis, from Swinemunde, Kiel and Christiansand to New York, arrived 08 July, 1870
From Jack Truher, Feb, 2000: "Now this begins to make sense. Of the three cities you list, two have somewhat different name adaptations. But this definitely begins to support the greater Berlin residency of the Trur family.
We can assume that the Filbey's entry probably means that the ship, Western Metropolis, began it's Western trip from Danzig. But it picked up the Trur family in Swineoujcscie (current Polish name for Swinemunde). Swineoujcscie is a shipping port, on the Baltic coast just at the border between Germany and modern Poland, about 50 miles north of Berlin. Then the ship traveled West to pick up additional passengers at Kiel, a major German port city on the Kiel Bay. In order to get out the Baltic Sea into the Atlantic, the ship must then travel North and then West. On the Southeast coast of Norway, the ship would have conveniently passed Kristiansand, another port where passengers boarded. Then on to New York.
The Danzig connection is: the ship's log would show that its journey began there. That association could be preserved in association with all passengers of that ship. I forget now how many sources have told us that Danzig was the Truher emigration point. I think there were other independent references of Danzig, but I can't name any of them, except the report I got from a German.")
August 11, 1870: Charles Edward was born in Wisconsin, probably Bay View. No Baptism record available as of 1999. Date verified per Confirmation Record at Immanuel Lutheran Church, Acoma Township, McLeod County Minnesota.
August 1872: Brother Jakob emigrates from Danzig, Prussia via Baltimore,Maryland and arrives in Bay View, Milwaukee County, Wisconsin sometime later to join Gottlieb.
Note: A picture was discovered in January of 2001 of the brothers Jakob and Gottlieb. The date is unknown, and could have been in the early 1870's in America, or in Germany before they emigrated.
January 22, 1873: Matheldie Helene (Aunt Till) born, Bay View, Wisconsin.
July 7, 1874: Herman Adolph and Julius Albert born, Bay View, Wisconsin.
July 21, 1874: Herman Adolph and Julius Albert die, Bay View, Wisconsin.
November 29, 1875: Gottlieb buys house on 156 Lenox Avenue, Bay View, Milwaukee County, Wisconsin (now 2370 and 2372 Lenox Avenue, Milwaukee, Milwaukee County, Wisconsin, 2 houses).
January 14, 1876: Auguste (Gussie) Amelia born, Bay View, Wisconsin.
June 1876: Gottlieb's last recorded communion at St. Lucas Church, Bay View, Wisconsin.
Mid 1876 - Mid 1885: Reconstruction, best guess: Gottlieb and Caroline and family went to Minneapolis, Hennepin County, Minnesota sometime after mid 1876. Note: Caroline Lietzau married Gustave Pinske on June 11, 1876 in McLeod County Minnesota. On January 7, 1879, Caroline Pein Truher was a Godparent to their son Theodore Hermann at his baptism in Immanuel Lutheran Church, Acoma Township, McLeod County Minnesota.
The Truher family eventually migrated to Fossum Township, Polk County, Minnesota by 1880 (Federal Census) where they were shown as living either next door or on the same farm as Gustave and Caroline Pinske. The four children were also there, but Mother Florentine was NOT listed. (This part of Polk County became part of the new Norman County in 1881. Fossum Township is on the eastern border of Norman County, with Wild Rice Township adjacent and to the West).
Between 1880 and 1885, the family moved to Wild Rice Township, Norman County, Minnesota, where they staked and worked their farm. The 1885 special Minnesota State Census shows them in Wild Rice Township, Norman County, Minnesota, again either with the Gustave and Caroline Pinske family, or next door to it (see "Ron Haack", below). Just a short distance away was the Ernest and Johanna Pinske family farm. Again, the four Truher children (August, Charles, Matilde and Augusta are listed, but now Gottlieb's mother Florentine Truher is listed, age 79 and born in Germany.
June 4, 1885: Gottlieb and Caroline Truher sold his house at 156 Lenox Avenue, Bay View, Milwaukee County, Wisconsin to brother Jakob Truher for $700. Gottlieb and Caroline are listed as from the town of Wild Rice, Norman County, and Minnesota.
December 24, 1885: United States grants Gottlieb and Caroline their land in Norman County, Minnesota.
June 4, 1886: Gottlieb and Caroline get mortgage on above land from Hiram Upton.
1886: Some major catastrophic event descends upon the Truher family. See the notes on son August Louis Truher where he tells a story of death (?) and his mother Caroline coming down with typhoic fever, rendering her helpless and August forced to learn to cook, etc. Whatever the event, it caused the next several steps in the eventual migration of the Truher's to Minneapolis.
Note: In August of 2000, a Hennepin County Minnesota Probate Court document from the year 1900 was discovered which tells of the committment of Gottlieb to the State Hospital for the Insane at St. Peter, Minnesota. Details below;however, it speaks of a lawsuit "with his brother" about the 1885 time period. Gottlieb never recovered from that episode. At this writing, there are no details about this lawsuit.
September, 27,1886: Gottlieb and Caroline buy 525 Franklin, Hutchinson, and McLeod County, Minnesota. They are listed as from Hennepin County, Minnesota.
December 18, 1886: Gottlieb and Caroline assign land in Norman County, Minnesota to Phelps and Calkins, attorneys for Mr. Upton.
April 17, 1887: Son Charles Edward Truher confirmed at Immanuel Lutheran Church, Acoma Township, McLeod County Minnesota.
October 1888: Daughter Mathilda Truher confirmed at Immanuel Lutheran Church, Acoma Township, McLeod County Minnesota.
April 5, 1891: Daughter Auguste Amalie confirmed at Immanuel Lutheran Church, Acoma Township, McLeod County Minnesota.
April 11, 1891: Norman County, Minnesota sheriff forecloses Gottlieb and Caroline's Norman County land. They still owe $855.35 and they missed a $48 interest payment.
1891/1892: The Minneapolis City Directory lists August Truer, brakeman, as living at 313 10th Avenue North. No mention of the rest of the family.
1892/1893: The Minneapolis City Directory lists at 2932 18th Avenue South: August L. Truer, brakeman, Charles E., brakeman, Gottlieb, Susan (? -Augusta??), folder, Mpls Envelope Co., and Tillie, folder, Mpls. Envelope Co. The family had moved to Minneapolis. Minors and non-working women were not listed in city directories, thus the absence of Caroline.
Note: There is confusion about two addresses, 2930 and 2932 18th Avenue South. 2932 18th Avenue South MAY have become 2930 18th Avenue South by 1900. A Sanborn fire map of 1906 shows the house as 2932, THREE lots north of the east-west alley, just where 2930 stands today. Another possibility is that 2930 and 2932 are really the same house, just downstairs and upstairs. After 1900, 2932 is never mentioned again.
1893/1894: The Minneapolis City Directory now shows at 2932 18th Avenue South: August Truher, conductor, Charles E., brakeman and Gottlieb, but not the women.
November 7, 1894: Gottlieb and Caroline sell 525 Franklin, Hutchinson, and McLeod County, Minnesota.
1894/1895: The Minneapolis City Directory now shows at 2932 18th Avenue South: August Truher, Augusta, seamstress, Charles, brakeman, Gottlieb and Matilda, sewer.
June 1895: The special 1895 Minnesota State Census shows the following: At 2932 18th Avenue South (first floor assumed): Gottlieb Truher, age 65, Caroline, age 56, August, age 28, brakeman, Charles, age 24, brakeman and Gussie, age 19, seamstress.
At 2932 (2nd floor): William F. Frank, age 24, born in New York, Electrician and Matilda Frank, age 22 (Tillie Truher got married)!
At 2930 18th Avenue South (one house north of 2932, no longer there, or see Note above): Albert Frank, age 25, born in Minnesota, Expressman, Ida, age 28, born in Illinois and Sydney Frank, age 2, born in Minnesota (wife and son). It is assumed that Albert was William Franks's brother - verification is needed.
June 16, 1896: Auguste Amelia Truher (daughter) marries William Carl Haack in Minneapolis, Hennepin County, and Minnesota. They will live at 3036 Snelling Avenue South, Minneapolis, the home of Louis and Amelia Zadach (brother-in-law and sister of William). Louis' father Friederick Wilhelm Gotthilf Zadach and step-mother Florentine (Florence) lived next door at 3032 Snelling Avenue South, Minneapolis.
November 4, 1896: Son August L. Truher buys 2930 18th Avenue South (old 2932, see above), Minneapolis, Hennepin County, Minnesota for $2100 cash plus an assumed mortgage of $1500. (Note: same house only sold for about twice that amount in 1954). This was a 2 family duplex.
January 1, 1898: Grandson Herbert William Haack is born at 3036 Snelling Avenue South, Minneapolis.
November 27, 1899: Granddaughter Delilah Henrietta Haack is born at 3036 Snelling Avenue South, Minneapolis.
May 17, 1900: William Carl and Auguste Amelia Haack and their children Herbert William and Delilah Henrietta move into one part of the duplex at 2930 18th Avenue South, Minneapolis.
June 6, 1900: The 1900 Federal Census lists at 2930 18th Avenue South, Minneapolis, Minnesota: William C.Haack, born Nov 1873, cooper, Augusta A. Haack, born Jan, 1875, wife, Herbert, son, born Jan 1898, Delilah Haack, daughter, born Nov. 1899, Gottlieb Truher, born Nov 1831, married 36 years, immigrated 1871, 29 years in USA, not naturalized, retired, Caroline Truher (wife), born Aug 1837, mother of 9 children, 4 still living, August Truher, born Aug 1866 in Germany, not naturalized, railroad conductor. No Charles Edward! Also, William and Matilda Truher Frank had moved.
Note: A picture was discovered in January of 2001 of Gottlieb and Caroline Truher with their daughter Augusta Truher Haack and their granddaughter Delilah H. Haack. It is believed that the photo was made sometime in the Summer of 1900, probably at 2930 18th Avenue South, Minneapolis.
November 27, 1900: There is a committment hearing in Minneapolis, and Gottlieb Truher is committed to the Minnesota State Hospital for the Insane at St. Peter. From the Certificate of Jury:
Gottlieb was not a member of a Church.
When were the first symptoms of this attack manifested, and in what way? Answer: Spring of 1886 after a law suit with brother, study and unusual interpretation of the Bible, excitable, etc.
Is the disease variable, ....? Answer: Yes. Variable in his moods and for a day or two seems rational. The predominant ideas recur at short intervals. On what subject, or in what way is derangement now manifested? (State fully): Answer: Religiosity. Claims infidelity of wife and children. Outbursts of rage and temper towards family quotes Bible as his authority. The Bible tells him that he is to kill his wife and that the time is (to be ?) appointed.
Has the patient sown any disposition to injure others? Answer: Except (?) by frequent threats and claims that the time is coming when all should die.
What is supposed to be the cause of the disease? Answer: Worry over lawsuits in 1886.
The patient said (here state what the patient said to either or both examiners): Talked of his suspicions regarding his wife and family and his religious impressions(?). Excitable, talks loudly and boistrously.
Other facts: Suspicious of neighbors and threats of (?) violence. Is at times vulgar. Has frequently struck(?) his wife (?) insulted her.
Gottlieb was admitted to the State Hospital on November 27, 1900 and was discharged on July 29, 1901. There is no further mention of his mental problems, and no family stories about this episode.
March 10, 1902: August L. Truher (single) sells 2930 18th Avenue South, Minneapolis, to William Carl Haack (and wife Gussie, August's sister) for $1500 plus a mortgage assumption.
April 15, 1902: August converts to Roman Catholicism, changes his first name to Augustus and marries Helen Mary Nellie Barrett in the Church of St. Augustine, Austin, Mower County, Minnesota. He moves to Austin. It can only be imagined the profound affect on Caroline Pein Truher, his mother, who was a staunch Prussian Lutheran and sent August to only the best of Lutheran schools.
June 13, 1902: Grandson Harold Carl Haack is born at 2930 18th Avenue South, Minneapolis, Minnesota.
December 5, 1904: Gottlieb dies in Minneapolis and was buried in Pioneer Cemetery, Cedar Avenue and Lake Street, Minneapolis, Minnesota. He was exhumed in 1919 and re- buried in the new Haack/Truher plot in Lakewood Cemetery, Minneapolis, Minnesota. (The Milwaukee Railroad appropriated part of Pioneer Cemetery in 1919).
July 24, 1912: Grandson Harold Carl Haack killed by streetcar on Lake Street in Minneapolis, Minnesota and was buried in Pioneer Cemetery, Cedar Avenue and Lake Street, Minneapolis, Minnesota. He was exhumed in 1919 and re-buried along with Gottlieb Truher in the new Haack/Truher plot in Lakewood Cemetery, Minneapolis, Minnesota.
December 12, 1928: Caroline dies at 2921 18th Avenue South, the home of her daughter Matilda Truher Frank and her husband William L. (across the street and a few doors north of Gussie Truher Haack's home where Caroline had lived for many years). She is buried next to Gottlieb and Grandson Harold Carl Haack in Lakewood Cemetery, Minneapolis.
Ron Haack: On Wednesday afternoon, August 18, 1999, I met Ramona Weaver as she pulled into the Kraft Farm in Wild Rice Township, Norman County, and Minnesota. This is former farm of Gottlieb Truher in the 1880's. Ramona is the daughter of Mrs. Kraft, who died last year. We talked for over an hour. She showed me the Norman County History book with articles on the Pinske family (Ferdinand, Ernest, etc.). The front half of the current house may be original to the Truher era (no proof). I took three photos, two of the house and outbuildings, and one of Ramona. The current address of the farm is Ramona Weaver, 2162 390th Street, Gary, MN 56545.
Ramona showed me the burial site just South and adjacent of the Kraft-Truher farm, on the current Pinske farm, with a monument to Ernest Pinske and historical markers. Because of poor lighting conditions, I returned the next day and took some photos. Ramona gave me a name of Ervine Pinske, man with one arm, living just north of Trinity Lutheran Church in Twin Valley. I failed to connect with Ervine.
There is a little Lutheran Church on Minnesota 200, about one mile East of the Truher homestead; however, Ramona said it started in 1919 and then folded. Records were transferred to Bethlehem Lutheran Church, Manhomen, Minnesota.
The Norman County Recorder's office in Ada stated that Norman County split from Polk County in 1881, which explains the census of 1880 and 1885 differences. There is no record of land purchased by Gottlieb Truher in the Polk County Recorder Office in Crookston, Minnesota. It looks like he staked out the land, homesteaded it and got his land grant later.
When comparing the current Wild Rice and Fossum Township maps side by side, the current Truher farm (the Kraft farm) is in the northeast corner of Wild Rice Township, second section in from the East. Wild Rice Township's northern border is Minnesota Highway 200. The north-south frontal road past the Truher-Kraft farm is Norman County 41 (two miles West of the Wild Rice - Fossum townships border. On Minnesota 200, about four miles East of the Truher-Kraft farm and in Fossum Township lies another Pinske farm. It just may be that the 1880 Federal Census showing the Truher and Pinske clans in Fossum Township, Polk County, is no fluke!
• 3-Gottlieb & Karoline - another formulation --

Here's is email text connecting Bogenschneider's we text as from an email Jack to a few on or about 2010m0903.

We know from other document in this folder that August Truher arrived in New York July 8, 1870.

Jack starts out tonight with picture Ron and I have had for years. Lots more on the web now. So we wind up with some outstanding representations of a sister ship (meaning same technology & general appearance),

San Salvador, to August Truher's Western Metropolis

2010m0903

Start with

image Then work on that image

The sail-and-steam Western Metropolis used an engine of the "walking beam" type. Note the xxxxmast(?) rising through the deckhead of her wheelhouse.

http://www.hylandgranby.com/marine_antiques_paintings_details.asp?itemID=PA0693 ==
image

San Salvador

image

San Salvador


================================================
http://images.maritimehistoryofthegreatlakes.ca/results?itype=Prints&q=Buffalo&fz=0

image
WESTERN METROPOLIS
imageimage  1895 ... WESTERN METROPOLIS Built 1856, at Buffalo, N. Y. HULL, of wood, by Bidwell, Banta & Co.; 340 feet over all; 40 feet beam, and 18 feet depth of hold. Tonnage 1,860 ONE BEAM ENGINE, by Merrick & Towne, Philadelphia, PA., diameter of cylinder 76 1/4 inches, by 12 feet stroke TWO BOILERS...

http://images.maritimehistoryofthegreatlakes.ca/811/data?n=22

image

see full image,
Western Metropolis-EXT00419f,

http://images.maritimehistoryofthegreatlakes.ca/811/image/2713?n=22


image
• 4-...August Truher's recitation of the political environment which triggered their emigration

Bogenschneider's web page text is here as found in link leading the story. The circumstance and travels of August Bogenschneider and August Truher, are so closely linked that this could also be August Truher's recitation of the political environment which triggered their emigration aboard the same ship, Western Metropolis and on the same date, leaving from the same port, etc. Indeed we find in this text: "
August and his family left Prussia and arrived in America on July 8, 1870, one week before the outbreak of the Franco-Prussian War on July 15." note by Jack Truher 2010-10-24.

---------------------------------------------

Bogenschneider Family Genealogy and Information

http://www.bogenschneider.org/august_bogenschneider_info.htm

The Bogenschneider Family Worldwide web site is dedicated to the Bogenschneider surname and to its associated histories, lineages, and shared family information.

Pomeranian Flag

The Life and Times of August Bogenschneider (1837-1919)
According to family history, August left Pommern in 1870 because of the imminent Franco-Prussian War and because of other 19th century developments in Pomerania.

Pomerania in the 19th Century: During the Thirty Years' War (1648), more of the Pomeranian land fell into the hands of the upper class, and their control was solidified. The tenants were given housing, some garden space, and payment in kind. There were restrictions on emigration, and the tenants were serfs. They were required to work on the estates three to four days a week. The political rights of the landowners, later called Junkers, allowed exploitation of the peasants.

Agrarian reforms of the 1808-16 changed life on the landed estates. Peasants could now marry without the permission of the landowner. Peasants could move to another Junker estate or work in town as day workers. However, life was no better than before. The estate owner no longer had to care for his tenants and could evict them. If the farm worker moved to town, the pay for his labor was small. The peasant could own land but only for as long as he lived. Then it would revert to the state. There were few landowners who treated their tenants with respect, but there was mostly a tendency for the German upper class to be authoritarian and regard the peasants as their personal property.

In 1817 a consolidation of the Lutheran churches to a State church began. By 1837 Friedrich Wilhelm III had combined the Lutheran and Calvinist churches. Many of the Old Lutherans of Pomerania objected and emigrated to America and other countries in the years of 1837, 1839, and 1843. (From "The History of Pomerania," edited by Carol Gohsman Bowen (
http://pages.prodigy.net/jhbowen/pommhist.htm )

There were many disasters in the 19th century in Pommerania. The great estates of Pomerania always produced an abundance of grain, especially rye. In the 1830s, England exacted a high tariff on this grain; the price of grain fell, and this hurt the estates and therefore the workers on the estates. There was a potato blight in the 1840s. The sandy soil of Pomerania was good for growing potatoes, and they were the main staple of the Pomeranian table. Many poor people went hungry. There were disastrous weather conditions in the years from 1853 until 1856. There was also rapid industrialization from 1850 until 1857 and many workers left the farms and the price of land fell.

Many Pomeranians emigrated to the United States in the second half of the 19th century. This peaked around 1880. Most of these Pomeranians were Lutherans who lived in the Midwest. The largest percentage went to Wisconsin. (This history was compiled from the writings of LeRoy Boehlke, President of Pommerscher Verein Freistadt, from the writings of Myron Gruenwald, who has written several books on Pommerania.)

August Bogenschneider and His Family. August served in the Prussian army, and related stories to his family of all the dead bodies he saw while driving an ammunition cart and horse through a battlefield. He was horrified by the death and destruction. His war experience was possibly in the 1863 Prussian War against Denmark, which won Prussia control of the states of Schleswig and Holstein, but he most likely served in the 1866 War with Austria ("Austro-Prussian War" or "The 7 Weeks War"). The Austro-Prussian War was between Prussia, allied with Italy, against Austria and her allies Bavaria, Württemberg, Saxony, Hanover, Baden, and several smaller German states. It was a war deliberately provoked by Otto von Bismarck, the Chancellor, over the objection of King William, in order to expel Austria from the German Confederation as a step toward the unification of Germany under Prussian dominance. The primary and final battle of this war was the Battle of Sadowa, named after the nearby village of Sadowa in the Czech Republic. After the early part of the campaign, the Austrian army had retired behind the River Elbe. The Prussian 1st and and Elbe Armies attacked the Austrians at the bridge of Sadowa early in the morning. They were able to drive the Austrians back for a short distance but the Austrian artillery fire prevented any further progress. The arrival of the Prussian 2nd Army in the late morning threatened the Austrian right flank. To meet this threat, the Austrians pulled their right wing back so that it faced north, but a bold advance by the Prussians, taking advantage of the cover provided by high corn and the smoke of the Austrian artillery fire, led to their infantry being able to get close to the Austrian lines and then charge home, breaking the line and capturing over 50 guns. The Austrians began to pull back and finally retreated from the field, leaving 40,000 dead and wounded. Prussian losses were about 10,000. This may well have been the battle scene that so horrified August.

August and his family left Prussia and arrived in America on July 8, 1870, one week before the outbreak of the Franco-Prussian War on July 15. It is unclear whether August had fulfilled his military obligations or left in order to avoid serving in the Franco-Prussian War. To legally emigrate from Prussia in the 1870s, one would have had to secure a release from citizenship and a release from military service. If August emigrated to avoid additional military service, he would have had to ignore these legal requirements. This was not that uncommon. Avoidance of the draft and serving in the Prussian Army during the Franco-Prussian War was a reason that many people left Pomerania. In fact, many historians rank the avoidance of the draft more significant than those who left Pommern for religious reasons.

Between 1807 and 1813 Prussia had developed a conscript system that became the model for the nations of Europe. The Prussians bypassed Napoleon's imposition of limitations on the size of their army by calling up the permitted number of men (42,000), training them rigorously for a few months, and then releasing the majority and calling up a new complement. They were thus able to build up a powerful reserve of trained men without openly defying Napoleon. After the Napoleonic era Prussia continued to employ this system, so that by the time of the Franco-Prussian War (1870-71) it had a mass army of conscripts reinforced with large reserve units, in contrast to France's smaller standing professional army. When Bismarck was installed as Chancellor in 1861, his first act was to over rule a parliament that wanted to reduce military service obligations from three to two years and he pushed through numerous army reforms. Bismarck said, "The great questions of the day will not be decided by speeches and resolutions of majorities, but by blood and iron." To maintain its large army, conscription was enforced and 63,000 men were conscripted each to serve 3 years on active duty and 4 more years in active reserve.

It was also a time of considerable political, social and economic unrest and a time of inevitable wars. The desire to avoid further serving in the army and again experiencing the horrors of death he had witnessed, and a desire to seek a better economic opportunity and life for his family in America, led August Bogenschneider in 1870 to make his decision to emigrate with his family to America. It was not an easy decision for him, because there was always the psychological stigma of being a deserter. Conservatism and loyalty were strong Pomeranian/Prussian characteristics. But August thought of his pregnant young wife, Wilhelmina, his four year-old son, Karl, and his six-month-old baby Hattie, and concluded that their life and future would be much better in America.

It is believed that August was from the town of Luckow, Kreis (County) Randow, Regierungsbezirk (district) of Stettin, Province of Pommern, Country of Prussia. Today the town is known as
Luckow-Petershagen , Kreis Uckermark, Brandenberg, Germany. August and his family made their way to Swinemünde, a Pomeranian port on the Baltic Sea. The family may have gone up the River Oder and then across the Great Haff, but most probably went by train from Luckow to Stettin and then Swinemünde. Because of an epidemic of typhoid fever on the Hamburg emigrant ship "Leibniz" during the winter crossing of 1867-1868 that caused the deaths of 108 out of 544 passengers, August, his family, and all the other emigrants were required to undergo a medical examination before embarking.

The August Bogenschneider family emigrated on the steamship Western Metropolis, Henry S. Quick, Master, and chartered to the Ruger Brothers' North American Lloyd Line. On May 18, 1870, Quick sailed from New York for Havre-Bremen-Copenhagen-Swinemünde-Kiel-Christiansand. As with many of the immigrant ships, the ship probably carried a cargo from the U.S. to Europe. The ship had a poor mechanical history and ownership had often changed hands. It had been used in the Civil War to ferry both cargo, war supplies and wounded soldiers. It definitely was not a luxury liner.

The Bogenschneiders boarded the ship in Swinemünde, with intermediate stops at Kiel, Germany, and Christiansand, Sweden. The ship returned by the northern route, arriving in New York, July 8, 1870, with 954 passengers. An estimated 75 percent of the passengers were German, 15 percent Swedish, and 10 percent Norwegian. From the Shetlands to Newfoundland the weather had been cold and foggy: 3 infants among the passengers died, as did one sailor, of pneumonia. It is believed that Wilhelmine had a miscarriage on the voyage. The normal amount of time during this period to cross the Atlantic from Germany to the U.S. was about 17 days, much better than the five or six weeks it had taken earlier in the century.

From the ship, the family went straight to Castle Garden Immigrant Landing Depot on the southern tip of Manhattan Island, New York. This depot was originally a fort, then a place of entertainment, and then was converted into an immigrant landing depot through which all steerage passengers had to pass. It served this purpose until 1892 when arrivals were moved to Ellis Island. At Castle Garden the family registered, received information, changed money, and washed and ate. August was listed as a "miller baker" in the immigration records. He may have worked in the mill in Luckow that is a tourist attraction today
(Die Luckower Bockwindmühle ). The mill in Luckow was first built around 1824 on Tuleier mountain. In 1853 the mill was remodeled and doubled in size. The Boehlke family acquired the mill in 1856 from a farmer's cooperative. It remained active as a mill until 1961 when plans were made to convert it to a youth center. These plans fell through. By 26 June 1989 Heinz Boehlke was the last owner from Luckow. The mill was sold to municipal authorities from Berlin for 18,000,00 East German Marks. It was developed as an historical mill. In 1992, the municipality of Luckow-Petershagen wanted to dismantle the mill, but was stopped from doing so. Since 01 June 1998 the mill is open again for visitors as a tourist attraction. (It was also in Luckow where August and Wilhelmine were married. A member of the Böhlke family sent a picture of the church to Helen Bogenschneider Moldenhauer in the early 50's. For information on the history of the church, see Die Kirche in Luckow .

Although records seem to indicate that August was a miller, according to family oral history he was a teacher.

Little Karl was amazed by the first black man he ever saw in his life in New York City. The family had the option to see a doctor and to get tickets for their further journey. The family had to be careful of the "friends from the old country," the "confidence men," and other swindlers outside the depot who preyed upon the immigrants.

At this time, the exact route the family took from New York to Wisconsin is not known, but the normal route until the mid 1860s was for Pomeranian immigrants to take a steamship up to Albany, New York, then a train to Buffalo, and then a steamship to Milwaukee in Wisconsin. By the mid 1860s the train from New York through Chicago and then to Milwaukee had become the standard way to travel. Milwaukee had an immigrant aid society to help arriving immigrants. The Pomeranian community in Freistadt north of Milwaukee may have helped August find a farm near Kohlsville, Wisconsin, where he first settled with his family.

The original farm was in Washington County, Wisconsin in the Town of Wayne, near Kohlsville, Wisconsin. August and his family moved from there to the Town of Theresa in Dodge County, Wisconsin between 1876 and 1880.

The 1890 Dodge County Plat Book shows that August owned 40 acres in Section 36, Township Theresa (near Nenno and the intersection of Highway 175 (former Highway 41), Hochheim and West Bend Roads). It is believed that the buildings were demolished when Highway 175 was widened and paved.

The 1910 Dodge County Plat Book shows that August had a residence in Marshville Post Office (Theresa Station) next to the William Dobberpuhl farm. This is where he lived in his retirement years.

1880 census: Married, Male, White, Age 42, Birthplace - Prussia; Occupation - Farmer, Father's Birthplace - Prussia, Mother's Birthplace - Prussia. Census Place - Theresa, Dodge, Wisconsin. Family History Library Film - 1255423, NA Film Number T9-1423. Page Number 415B

1910 U.S. Census: Bogenschneider, Aug, Wisconsin, Dodge, Theresa, Age 72, Male, Race: White, Series: T624 Roll: 1706 Page: 301

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Notes on the history of the steamship, Western Metropolis, that August Bogenschneider and his family took to the U.S.:

The WESTERN METROPOLIS was a wooden side-paddle steamship built by F. Z. Tucker, Brooklyn, and launched in 1863, for George Griswold, A. Benner,
William Wall, and others; contemporary reports list her as belonging to the firm of Benner & Brown. 2,269 tons as built (remeasured in 1865 at 2,092 tons); 285 ft 4 in x 40 ft 8 in x 23 ft (length x breadth x depth of hold); draft 16 ft; straight stem, 1 funnel, 2 masts. Her engine (75 inch bore; 12 foot stroke) had been built in 1848 by Merrick & Towne, Philadelphia, and had served two Great Lakes steamers, the EMPIRE STATE, built in 1848, and the WESTERN METROPOLIS, built in 1856--it is from this vessel that she took her name--new boilers, wheels, and general reconditioning by Morgan Iron Works. Described by a contemporary, Capt. George H. Norton, as a "very slow, clumsy, unwieldy, hard steering steamer". Chartered by the Quartermaster Corps immediately upon completion for $850 per day, and kept in continuous use from December 1863 until late January 1865. First voyage, New York-New Orleans; on the return voyage, seized the steamer ROSITA, with a cargo of munitions and liquor, and towed her prize into Key West on 29 January 1864. Spent most of 1864 ferrying troops and supplies between New York and Hampton Roads, in support of the Union Army's activities in Virginia; northbound, carried hundreds of sick and wounded. December 1864, loaded troops for the attack on Fort Fisher. 20 February 1865, single roundtrip (and first commercial) voyage, New York-Greytown, chartered to M. O. Roberts. April 1865, single roundtrip voyage, New York-New Orleans, chartered to H. B. Cromwell & Co. May-July 1865, New York-New Orleans, chartered by Quartermaster Corps. August 1865, single roundtrip voyage, New York-New Orleans, chartered to W. H. Robson & Co; returned with a record cargo of 3,000 bales of cotton. 30 September 1865, single roundtrip voyage (her only voyage for her original owners, Benner & Brown), New York-Apalachicola, Florida, returning with a cargo of cotton. November 1865, sold to Ruger Brothers. Originally advertised to sail for the Ruger Brothers' North American Lloyd Line to Bremen via Southampton on 17 March 1866, the WESTERN METROPOLIS did not sail until 28 June 1866. However, she had been refitted with paddle wheels that shed their floats in anything but a dead calm, and the WESTERN METROPOLIS was forced to turn around and put in to Boston, which she reached on 6 July 1866, before all the paddles were lost. After temporary repairs, on 10 July 1866, she sailed for New York (arrived 19 July), unable to continue the voyage to Bremen; laid up. Late 1866, together with the other vessels of the North American Lloyd Line, sold to Isaac Taylor's New York & Bremen Steamship Co. 7 March 1867, first voyage, New York-Cowes-Bremen (arrived after a voyage of 17 days). Continued to make eastbound sailings at approximately eight-week intervals. 24 August 1867, sailed from New York on fourth (and last) voyage for New York & Bremen Steamship Co; 8 September 1867, arrived at Southampton with a broken shaft; repaired at Southampton, and proceeded on to Bremen; on return passage, reached New York 6 November 1867, from Bremen 20 October 1867 and Cowes 22 October 1867, with 921 passengers; there had been 3 deaths on the passage: an infant, a case of delirium tremens, and a case of apoplexy. 30 June 1868, sold for $57,000; her new owner advertised her for sale for the rest of 1868 and all of 1869, without success. 1870, acquired by Merchants' Steamship Co, Frederic Baker, agent, for its New York-New Orleans service. 12 March and 9 April 1870, two roundtrip voyages, New York-New Orleans. 18 May 1870, Capt. H. S. Quick, sailed from New York for Havre-Bremen-Copenhagen-Swinemunde-Kiel-Christiansand, chartered to Ruger Brothers. Returned by the northern route, arriving New York 7 July 1870, with 954 passengers; from the Shetlands to Newfoundland the weather had been cold and foggy: 3 infants among the passengers died, as did one sailor, of pneumonia. September 1870, returned to New York-New Orleans service. October 1871, port shaft cracked on voyage from New York to New Orleans; shaft replaced at sea. February-August 1873, laid up. 13 February 1875, last voyage, New York-New Orleans-New York (arrived 9 March 1875). March 1875, Merchants' Steamship Co ceased operations. 1875-1878, laid up; several changes of ownership reported; last sale to Cornelius Delamater, who bought her for $15,000. March 1878, at the Delamater Iron Works, on the North River side of Manhattan, where her engine was removed. I have no information on her later history or ultimate fate [Cedric Ridgely-Nevitt, American Steamships on the Atlantic (Newark: University of Delaware Press, [1981], pp. 329-330]. - [Posted to the Emigration-Ships Mailing List by Michael Palmer - 29 August 1998]

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